El juicio práctico


Es un acto cognoscitivo por el que la razón destaca, por encima de las demás, la acción que debe realizarse. Este acto engendra la virtud llamada synesis, que quiere decir sensatez, sentenciar bien, juzgar rectamente, tener buen sentido, rechazando ideas y concepciones erróneas[i]. A la sensatez se opone la inconsideración o insensatez.

Todavía hay otra virtud relacionada con el juicio práctico: la gnome, juicio equitativo o sentido de la excepción, que consiste en saber sentenciar ad casum, cuando se presenta la necesidad de hacer alguna cosa al margen de las reglas comunes de acción. Mientras que la synesis se refiere al juicio recto sobre las cosas comunes y ordinarias, la gnome se refiere al recto juicio en los casos excepcionales no previstos por las leyes humanas[ii]. Esta virtud facilita la epiqueya, que consiste en apartarse de la materialidad o letra de la ley para realizar justamente la intención del legislador.


[i] Cf. S.Th., II–II, q. 51, a. 3.

[ii] Cf. S. TOMÁS DE AQUINO, In Ethicorum, l. VI, lec. 9, n. 9. Eubulia, synesis y gnome son las virtudes anejas o partes potenciales de la prudencia.

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